This paper presents a brief review of Minamata disease with an emphasis on the cases found in Kumamoto Prefecture. Minamata disease played an important role in environmental awareness — namely the effects of pollution — and element toxicology. In extreme cases, insanity, paralysis, coma and death follow within weeks of the onset of symptoms. The disease is characterized by peripheral sensory loss, tremors, dysarthria, ataxia, and both hearing and visual loss. In the city there was a factory that manufactured the chemicals vinyl chloride (used to make the plastic PVC; see pp. Counteraction and unconcern VII. At the same time. And, like the cats, some people seemed to be going crazy, shouting uncontrollably. Effect of Minamata disease status and the perception of unfairness on ill health and inequalities in health amongst residents of Shiranui Sea communities. The effluent from the factory contained inorganic mercury and perhaps also some organic mercury (methyl mercury), produced as a by-product in the chemical reaction in the plant. The processes used inorganic mercury (mercuric oxide) as a catalyst. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Neurological and neurocognitive functions from intrauterine methylmercury exposure. Characteristics of hand tremor and postural sway in patients with fetal-type Minamata disease. A second epidemic in Japan occurred in 1965 along the Agano River, Niigata Prefecture. Severely affected children born with congenital Minamata disease are mental retarded and have disturbed coordination, deformities of the limbs, poor reflexes, poor nutrition and growth, and, in some cases, show other effects. 2009 Dec 20;408(2):272-6. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.011. At Kumamoto University, research suggested that the disease was a type of heavy metal poisoning transmitted by fish and shellfish. Minamata is an industrial city on the Yatsushiro coast of Japan on the southernmost island (Kyushu). The factory eventually stopped the process in 1968 and in the same year the Japanese government announced its opinion that the disease was due to consumption of methyl mercury in contaminated fish and seafood. 14. Over two thousand people died, and thousands more experienced crippling injuries. The devastating effects of mercury poisoning that occurred Minamata Japan Minamata Disease, the existence of which was officially acknowledged by the government in 1956, is a ... and the level of spread and severity in harming the natural environment, leaving behind adverse effects across the local communities that lasted for a protracted period of time. Then, the local population of people that depended on fish were affected, particularly developing fetuses and children. Minamata disease is typical of modern industrial pollution in so far as it manifests a wide geographic spread of impacts and casualties. Minamata disease is transmitted by the consumption of large numbers of shellfish and fish living in the Minamata Bay and its environs which was contaminated by mercury compound. The Nippon Chisso Company: Beginnings II. Once the neurologic sequelae of Minamata disease are evident, the damage is irreversible, and severe intoxications have been fatal. Minamata disease is an encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy caused by daily intake of fish and shellfish highly contaminated by methylmercury. 168-71) and acetaldehyde for many years. The effluent, containing inorganic mercury and discharged into the bay from the factory, was not dispersed in the water, but formed sediment at the bottom where micro-organisms converted the mercury into the more toxic methyl-mercury. Curr Opin Pediatr. Recovering from the defeat of the Second World War IV. Chapter - 4 Minamata disease. Iwata T, Takaoka S, Sakamoto M, Maeda E, Nakamura M, Liu XJ, Murata K. J Toxicol Sci. In that respect, this review of the outbreak and of the neuropathology of the process, of which much though not by any means all was published in the Japanese literature of the period, is well justified. Local people who consumed seafood from Minamata Bay became very sick, … In extreme cases, insanity, paralysis, coma, and death follow within weeks of the onset of symptoms. In i960 methyl mercury was detected in seafood and in 1961 it was detected in sediments derived from the factory. Dr Hosokawa, director of the Minamata City hospital was conducting his own experiments based on the theory from the university. While people living outside of the Minamata area had an average level of 4ppm, people living in Mina… Keywords: Continue reading here: The teratogenic effects of methyl mercury, The All Natural Varicose and Spider Vein Solution, ELAY Emollient Intensive Skin Moisturizer, The teratogenic effects of methyl mercury, The attempted murder of Benvenuto Cellini, How DDT works and why it is toxic to insects but not mammals, Symptoms and detection of strychnine poisoning, Accumulation of chemicals in the food chain bioaccumulation and biomagnification, How paint stripper can cause carbon monoxide poisoning, Scientists Reverse Memory Loss in Alzheimers. First, local cats that ate the fish began to stagger about and die. In 1956 the first case of what became known as Minamata disease was reported and then other people started to present themselves to doctors and at hospitals with various symptoms such as muscular incoordination and difficulties in speech. It was caused by the release of methyl mercury in the industrial waste water from the Chisso Corporation’s chemical factory, which continued from 1932 to 1968. These epidemics appeared during an era in which productivity took the highest priority and little consideration was given to the environment. The effects of Minamata disease have primarily affected women and children. In this review, we first summarize 1) the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure in Minamata disease. USA.gov. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. A congenital form of the disease can also affect fetuses. I have been working in Minamata as a medical doctor for about 30 years. Minamata disease Last Updated on Sat, 05 Dec 2020 | Toxic Effects Minamata is an industrial city on the Yatsushiro coast of Japan on the southernmost island (Kyushu). Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Minamata disease is caused through the absorption of methyl mercury into the body through various environmental sources, primarily through seafood. Minamata disease (M. d.) is methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning that occurred in humans who ingested fish and shellfish contaminated by MeHg discharged in waste water from a chemical plant (Chisso Co. Ltd.). In i966 the factory installed a water circulation system which removed the mercury pollution. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, J-STAGE, Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator, Electronic. 1921. Yorifuji T, Kashima S, Tsuda T, Harada M. Sci Total Environ. Minamata disease is one of the most significant negative consequences associated with environmental pollution caused by industrial activity in the world. 2016;41(6):757-763. doi: 10.2131/jts.41.757. During the early stages of the Minamata Disease crisis in Minamata, patients, who were diagnosed with Minamata Disease, seemed to be typical and sever cases of the Hunter- Russell syndrome, including sensory disturbance, concentric constriction of the visual field, ataxia, speech impairment and impaired hearing*12*13*14. chain. 2018;73(3):258-264. doi: 10.1265/jjh.73.258. The company that owned the factory, the Chisso Minamata Chemical Company, was aware of his work and by 1959 knew that it was likely that Minamata disease was caused by the effluent from their factory.  |  - Minamata disease. Some had difficulty hearing or seeing. It was stated that Minamata disease is the illness of the central nervous system caused by a methyl-mercury compound released into the aquatic environment as a by-product of acetaldehyde acetic acid. Minamata disease, sometimes referred to as Chisso-Minamata disease, is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning. He T, Shen H, Zhu J, Zhu Y, He Y, Li Z, Lu H. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Aug;20(2):1499-1508. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2019.10396. Photos of small patients born with central paralysis are horrifying. [Mercury as a Global Pollutant and Mercury Exposure Assessment and Health Effects]. Crossref, Google Scholar; Vogt RR, Nieuwland JA. Signs and symptoms include ataxia, numbness in the hands and feet, general muscle weakness, loss of peripheral vision, and damage to hearing and speech. Typical patients with fetal-type Minamata disease (i.e., serious poisoning caused by in utero exposure to methylmercury) were born during the period of severe methylmercury pollution in 1955-1959, although they showed no abnormality during gestation nor at delivery. Stress Health doi: 10.1002/smi.1310. Mineshi SAKAMOTO, Takaaki ITAI, Katsuyuki MURATA, Effects of Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure: From Minamata Disease to Environmental Health Studies, Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene)Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene), … It was in May 1956, that M. d. was first officially "discovered" in Minamata City, south-west reg … as follows: 2) a retrospective study on temporal and regional variations of methylmercury pollution in Minamata area using preserved umbilical cord methylmercury, 3) decline in male sex ratio observed in Minamata area, 4) characteristics of hand tremor and postural sway in fetal-type Minamata disease patients, 5) methylmercury transfer from mothers to infants during gestation and lactation (the role of placenta), 6) extrapolation studies using rat models on the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure on the human brain, and 7) risks and benefits of fish consumption. 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